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A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration has been studied for communication applications, offering a lot of advantages to mitigate propagation effects because of multipath and fading environments. More recently, MIMO techniques in radar have been proposed. MIMO is discussed in the context of high-frequency surface waves radar (HFSWR). After a short introduction to the MIMO radar technique (a technique which is not new; the RIAS developed by ONERA was probably the first MIMO radar), explores two different applications are explored. The first application aims at improving the resolution and accuracy of a coastal radar, proposed here in a bistatic configuration. Such a radar operates with a wide sparse frequency band and with an equivalent wide aperture, taking advantage of the MIMO configuration. Simulation over a congested area of targets demonstrates the benefit of MIMO over the conventional HFSWR radar, especially in terms of separation of targets. The second application consists in a more practical ship-borne HFWSR configuration compatible with space time adaptive processing (STAP) to improve the detection of slow targets. In this case, a limited number of receiving channels is considered whereas STAP uses the degrees of freedom offered by the transmitting array. The MIMO-STAP is compared with a conventional STAP, showing that theoretical performances should not be affected by the MIMO configuration even if the signals are no longer perfectly orthogonal, because of Doppler shift, once scattered by moving targets.