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This article presents a new compact architecture, consisting of two independent cores that process encryption and decryption simultaneously, for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The corresponding new compact key generation unit with 32-bit datapath is also explored to provide round keys on the fly for encryption and decryption. A novel way to implement ShiftRows/InvShiftRows, one of the key designs in the compact 32-bit architecture, is proposed. The new AES implementation requires only 16 629 gate equivalents on the 0.35 mum CMOS technology from CSMC Technologies Corporation, while providing encryption and decryption in parallel with 335 Mbits/s throughput.