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We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional radio-over-fiber (RoF) system based on a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). In this system, phase-modulated 5.25-GHz radio frequency (RF) carrying 850 Mb/s is used for the downstream signal. Optical envelope detection of 10-GHz RF carrying 850 Mb/s is achieved in an RSOA. Both signals share a single fiber link and the same light source by exploiting optical carrier remodulaiton. Moreover, there is no need to employ RF down-conversion technology for RoF uplink. This makes the proposed system simpler and more cost-effective. The experimental results indicate that after simultaneous transmission of downstream and upstream signals over 25-km fiber, the receiver sensitivities are -22 and -14.5 dBm, respectively.