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Ultracapacitors are becoming widely accepted in the energy storage industry in both standalone and in combination with batteries. Standalone applications, once niche, are now rapidly expanding as the technical and economic benefits of this power dense component become more widely understood. Combination examples continue to proliferate, primarily in battery electric and hybrid electric commercial transportation segments such as transit buses and trains. The ultracapacitor offers a fast energy buffer to advanced chemistry energy reservoirs such as nickel metal hydride and lithium batteries and offer an opportunity for truly energy optimized battery systems. This presentation will discuss trends in energy storage systems, advanced chemistry batteries such as nickel-hydrogen and lithium-ion and why such components would benefit from working in combination with carbon capacitors. The presentation will focus on the strengths and weakness of each technology and why the active parallel combination of ultracapacitor plus electronic converter with the lithium-ion battery is a complimentary and synergistic alternative.