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Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in applications of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). In these applications, a set of mobile actor nodes are deployed in addition to sensors in order to collect sensors' data and perform specific tasks in response to detected events/objects. In most scenarios, actors have to respond collectively, which requires interactor coordination. Therefore, maintaining a connected interactor network is critical to the effectiveness of WSANs. However, WSANs often operate unattended in harsh environments where actors can easily fail or get damaged. An actor failure may lead to partitioning the interactor network and thus hinder the fulfillment of the application requirements. In this paper, we present DARA, a distributed actor recovery algorithm, which opts to efficiently restore the connectivity of the interactor network that has been affected by the failure of an actor. Two variants of the algorithm are developed to address 1- and 2-connectivity requirements. The idea is to identify the least set of actors that should be repositioned in order to reestablish a particular level of connectivity. DARA strives to localize the scope of the recovery process and minimize the movement overhead imposed on the involved actors. The effectiveness of DARA is validated through simulation experiments.
Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:20 , Issue: 9 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2009