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This paper utilizes an intelligent system which incorporates Kalman filters (KFs) and a fuzzy expert system to track the tip of a fastening tool and to identify the fastened bolt. This system employs one inertial measurement unit and one position sensor to determine the orientation and the center of mass location of the tool. KFs are used to estimate the orientation of the tool and the center of mass location of the tool. Although a KF is used for the orientation estimation, orientation error increases over time due to the integration of angular velocity error. Therefore, a methodology to correct the orientation error is required when the system is used for an extended period of time. This paper proposes a method to correct the tilt angle and orientation errors using a fuzzy expert system. When a tool fastens a bolt, the system identifies the fastened bolt using a fuzzy expert system. Through this bolt identification step, the 3-D orientation error of the tool is corrected by using the location and orientation of the fastened bolt and the position sensor outputs. Using the orientation correction method will, in turn, result in improved reliability in determining the tool tip location. The fastening tool tracking system was experimentally tested in a lab environment, and the results indicate that such a system can successfully identify the fastened bolts.
Date of Publication: May 2009