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In this paper, we present an online stochastic approach for landmine detection based on ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals using sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods. The processing applies to the two-dimensional B-scans or radargrams of 3-D GPR data measurements. The proposed state-space model is essentially derived from that of Zoubir et al., which relies on the Kalman filtering approach and a test statistic for landmine detection. In this paper, we propose the use of reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo in association with the SMC methods to enhance the efficiency and robustness of landmine detection. The proposed method, while exploring all possible model spaces, only expends expensive computations on those spaces that are more relevant. Computer simulations on real GPR measurements demonstrate the superior performance of the SMC method with our modified model. The proposed algorithm also considerably outperforms the Kalman filtering approach, and it is less sensitive to the common parameters used in both methods, as well as those specific to it.