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A new elastic registration algorithm is proposed in this paper, which applies Markov-Gibbs random fields (MGRF) model to the elastic registration field of medical images. The algorithm is constructed by integrating the elastic registration algorithm based on B-spline wavelet and the priori knowledge of the maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation into a MGRF model. In the MGRF model, the reference and test images are the known conditions and B-spline wavelet is the basis function constructing the elastic deformation function. The coefficients of B-spline wavelet in the deformation function are the parameters to be evaluated. Various medical images are selected to verify the algorithm, which show that the new algorithm is superior to the elastic registration one without priori knowledge.