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This paper proposes an antilock braking system (ABS), in which unknown road characteristics are resolved by a road estimator. This estimator is based on the LuGre friction model with a road condition parameter and can transmit a reference slip ratio to a slip-ratio controller through a mapping function. The slip-ratio controller is used to maintain the slip ratio of the wheel at the reference values for various road surfaces. In the controller design, an observer-based direct adaptive fuzzy-neural controller (DAFC) for an ABS is developed to online-tune the weighting factors of the controller under the assumption that only the wheel slip ratio is available. Finally, this paper gives simulation results of an ABS with the road estimator and the DAFC, which are shown to provide good effectiveness under varying road conditions.