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E-government knowledge collaboration service integrates management innovation and information services innovation using Web technology. It is an important part of the national innovation system, namely introduces collaborative service ideas of knowledge management to e-government. Knowledge collaboration service is the national knowledge infrastructure which provides convenient knowledge services to promote knowledge innovation. In order to solve the heterogeneous expression of knowledge resource and make them automatically understood and processed by machine, more semantic descriptions are needed. As a promising technology to express semantics, ontology is introduced in the paper. Also the framework and key technologies of e-government collaboration service based on ontology are discussed in this paper.