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The economical and regulatory pressures place on the automotive industry to develop vehicles with increased fuel efficiency will continue to grow over the coming decade. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent a solution which has received a large degree of interest from government, academia, and automotive manufacturers. This paper studies the potential of using a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the control and calibration of a HEV. Competitive control strategies were reviewed and a fuzzy controller was identified as a strong candidate for reducing fuel consumption. A fuzzy controller was developed and implemented in a MATLAB/Simulink-based simulation platform. The controller was calibrated to optimize the fuel efficiency and emissions of a Toyota Prius power-split hybrid. The results were analyzed and compared against reported data from the actual vehicle.