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Expertise of packaging for optoelectronic components requires the solution of optical, mechanical, and electrical problems in the same way. The purpose of this paper is to present three-dimensional simulations using finite-element method (FEM) of thermomechanical stresses and strains in 1550-nm laser modules induced by Nd:YAG crystal laser welds and thermal cycles on main subassembly laser submount. Nonlinear FEM computations, taking into account of experimental sigma(epsiv) measured curves, show that the laser welding process can induce high level of strains in columns of the laser platform, bearing the laser diode, responsible of an optical axis shift and a gradual drop of the optical power in relation with relaxation of accumulated stresses in the subassembly (W. M. Sherry et al., ldquoHigh performance optoelectronic packaging for 2.5 and 10 Gb/s laser modules,rdquo in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 1996, pp. 620-627). Typical stresses are close to 160 MPa with drift about 5 MPa with the dispersion of energy level of the laser Nd: YAG beam. The introduction of both material and process dispersion in order to evaluate their impact on product lifetime distribution has been taking into account. In the case of thermal cycles, stresses can occur on elements sensitive to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches such as solder joints between the laser platform and thermoelectric cooler and as fiber glued into the pigtail leading to crack propagation with sudden drop of optical power. A previous paper demonstrated that laser submount is the most sensitive part of optical system (Deshayes, et al., ldquoThree-dimensional FEM simulations of thermal mechanical stresses in 1.55 mum laser modules,rdquo Microelectron. Rel., vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1125 -1136, Jul. 2003). Experimental analyses were also conducted to correlate simulation results and monitor the output optical power of laser modules after 500 thermal cycles ( -40degC/ + 85degC VRT).
Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:31 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Dec. 2008