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Blood erythrocytes morphology of pregnant women without hematological pathology, suffering from carbohydrates metabolic derangement, and newborn infants were investigated. Investigations were carried out using the digital holographic interference microscope. It has been found that erythrocytes morphology of the majority of the women did not correspond to the medical norm. Specific changes of erythrocytes morphology of patients with diabetes mellitus have not been detected. Morphological features of newborn infant erythrocytes have been visualized. Correlation of mother and child erythrocytes shapes has not been observed. The investigations have confirmed that erythrocytes underwent morphology changes not only in hematological diseases, but in pathology of different geneses. So, erythrocytes morphology reflects a state of an organism as a whole.