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This paper presents a novel parameter adjustment scheme to improve the robustness of fuzzy sliding-mode control achieved by the use of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) architecture. The proposed scheme utilizes fractional-order integration in the parameter tuning stage. The controller parameters are tuned such that the system under control is driven toward the sliding regime in the traditional sense. After a comparison with the classical integer-order counterpart, it is seen that the control system with the proposed adaptation scheme displays better tracking performance, and a very high degree of robustness and insensitivity to disturbances are observed. The claims are justified through some simulations utilizing the dynamic model of a 2-DOF direct-drive robot arm. Overall, the contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the response of the system under control is significantly better for the fractional-order integration exploited in the parameter adaptation stage than that for the classical integer-order integration.