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In this paper, we report on the synthesis and applications of semiconducting nanostructures. Nanostructures of interest were zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanotubes where transistors/phototransistors and photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion cells have been fabricated. ZnO nanowires were grown with both high- and low-temperature approaches, depending on the application. Individual ZnO nanowire side-gated transistors revealed excellent performance with a field-effect mobility of 928 cm2/V middots. ZnO networks were proposed for large-area macroelectronic devices as a less lithographically intense alternative to individual nanowire transistors where mobility values in excess of 20 cm2/V middots have been achieved. Flexible PV devices utilizing ZnO nanowires as electron acceptors and for photoinduced charge separation and transport have been presented. Phototransistors were fabricated using individual WS2 nanotubes, where clear sensitivity to visible light has been observed. The results presented here simply reveal the potential use of inorganic nanowires/tubes for various optoelectronic devices.