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To deal with distribution network reconfiguration, a hierarchical structure poly-particle swarm optimization (HSPPSO) approach using the hierarchical structure concept of control theory is presented. In the bottom layer, parallel optimization calculation is performed on poly-particle swarms. In the top layer, each particle swam in the bottom layer is treated as a particle. The best position found by each particle swarm in the bottom layer is regarded as the best position of single particle of the top layer particle swarm. The result of optimization on the top layer particle swarm is fed back to the bottom layer. Considering the features of distribution network, the probability of producing feasible solutions is improved by modifying the rule of position updating. The test of proposed method on two typical IEEE testing systems shows that HSPPSO performance is better than particle swarm optimization (PSO) both on convergence rate and accuracy.