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This paper considers a Q-ary orthogonal direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) system with high-rate space-time linear dispersion codes (LDCs) in time-varying Rayleigh fading multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channels. We propose a joint multiuser detection, LDC decoding, Q-ary demodulation, and channel-decoding algorithm and apply the turbo processing principle to improve system performance in an iterative fashion. The proposed iterative scheme demonstrates faster convergence and superior performance compared with the V-BLAST-based DS-CDMA system and is shown to approach the single-user performance bound. We also show that the CDMA system is able to exploit the time diversity offered by the LDCs in rapid-fading channels.