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The demanding task of assessing long-time interconnect reliability can only be achieved by combination of experimental and technology computer-aided design (TCAD) methods. The basis for a TCAD tool is a sophisticated physical model which takes into account the microstructural characteristics of copper. In this paper, a general electromigration model is presented with special focus on the influence of grain boundaries and mechanical stress. The possible calibration and usage scenarios of electromigration tools are discussed. The physical soundness of the model is proved by 3-D simulations of typical dual-damascene structures used in accelerated electromigration testing.