Skip to Main Content
Interaction cost is an important but poorly understood factor in visualization design. We propose a framework of interaction costs inspired by Normanpsilas Seven Stages of Action to facilitate study. From 484 papers, we collected 61 interaction-related usability problems reported in 32 user studies and placed them into our framework of seven costs: (1) Decision costs to form goals; (2) system-power costs to form system operations; (3) Multiple input mode costs to form physical sequences; (4) Physical-motion costs to execute sequences; (5) Visual-cluttering costs to perceive state; (6) View-change costs to interpret perception; (7) State-change costs to evaluate interpretation. We also suggested ways to narrow the gulfs of execution (2-4) and evaluation (5-7) based on collected reports. Our framework suggests a need to consider decision costs (1) as the gulf of goal formation.