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A biocompatible neural microprobe constructed using well-established SU-8 microfabrication techniques is described that was designed to record fiber spike signals from regenerated axons within peripheral nerves. These microprobes features bipolar longitudinal gold electrodes recessed below the surface within ldquogroovesrdquo designed to guide the growth of regenerating axons along the length of the grooves and limit the number of fibers that come in contact with the longitudinal electrodes. In addition, screening microprobe toxicity using cultures of human skin fibroblasts, the biocompatibility of these SU-8 microprobes for neural interface applications, in particular, was specifically verified using primary cultures of two sensitive cell types found in peripheral nerves: purified Schwann cells and explanted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and their fibers. The SU-8 microprobes were surgically implanted into transected rat Sciatic nerves within a unique peripheral nerve regeneration tube. Long-term fiber spike signals were recorded with these SU-8 microprobes in 13 chronically implanted rats for periods from 4 to 51 weeks without any signs of tissue damage or inflammatory reaction.