Skip to Main Content
We propose a generalized T -matrix definition that facilitates the conversion between the S-parameter and T-parameter for multiport networks based on the well understood and mathematically simple two-port relations. This approach generalizes all multiport networks into two cases: balanced and unbalanced. Balanced networks have the same number of entrance and exit ports and are symmetric to the two-port network. Unbalanced networks generate a nonsquare T -matrix and do not have the same number of entrance and exit ports. Through careful selection of the T -matrix, this method extends two-port symmetry to multiport networks and provides an engineering implementable relationship between the S-parameter and T-parameter for multiport networks. This symmetry extension allows a practical means to cascade and de-embed such networks.