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A multiple-component scattering model (MCSM) is proposed to decompose polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images. The MCSM extends a three-component scattering model, which describes single-bounce, double-bounce, volume, helix, and wire scattering as elementary scattering mechanisms in the analysis of PolSAR images. It can be found that double-bounce, helix, and wire scattering are predominant in urban areas. These elementary scattering mechanisms correspond to the asymmetric reflection condition that the copolar and cross-polar correlations are not close to zero. The MCSM is demonstrated with a German Aerospace Center (DLR) Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (ESAR) L-band full-polarized image of the Oberpfaffenhofen Test Site Area (DE), Germany, which was obtained on September 30, 2000. The result of this decomposition confirmed that the proposed model is effective for analysis of buildings in urban areas.