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Three-dimensional (3D) system integration is widely accepted as a key enabler for future systems. Although there are a number of approaches to 3D integration, none have addressed the need for cooling in a 3D stack of high-performance chips (microprocessors). This is a significant omission and imposes a constraint on the ability to fully utilize the benefits of 3D technology. Thus, new 3D integration technologies are needed for high-performance applications as well as those that require the integration of photonics within the 3D stack.