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We demonstrate compression of ultrawideband (UWB) microwave arbitrary waveforms via phase-only matched filtering implemented in a programmable hyperfine resolution optical pulse shaper. We synthesize spread-time UWB electrical waveforms and utilize programmable microwave photonic phase filters to impose the opposite of a waveform's spectral phase on its spectrum. This enables us to compress an UWB microwave waveform to its corresponding bandwidth-limited pulse duration via phase filtering. As an example, we present compression of a linear frequency-modulated electrical waveform with > 15 GHz frequency content with almost 200% fractional bandwidth with ~ 733 ps temporal window to a 40-ps duration pulse with more than 14-dB gain in peak power. Our technique is programmable and we believe it is applicable to a wide range of arbitrary spectral phase modulated UWB radio frequency (RF) waveforms.