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Owing to limitations of conventional therapeutic modalities (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) a renewed interest in cancer thermotherapy has resulted. Fundamental principles governing tissue absorption, guidelines for applicator selection and design and restrictions of each heating approach are discussed. The paper also focuses on recent innovative techniques utilising multiple applicators to achieve better heating uniformity within the safety and regulations guidelines. Current trends in the field of hyperthermia and future projections in equipment design are also presented.