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The paper discusses conventional X-ray imaging in all its forms. From the X-ray source, with its continuous spectrum, through to scatter control and image intensification, both theoretical and practical problems are considered. Hospital X-ray departments are cost-conscious and so improvements in X-ray tube design, grids, rare-earth screens and films have all been forthcoming. The paper concludes with a review of fluoroscopic imaging methods. There have been drastic improvements in the quality of image the radiologist has available. The newer vidicon cameras are a major contributor to this.