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Electronic marking and identification techniques to discourage document copying

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4 Author(s)
Brassil, J.T. ; AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA ; Low, S. ; Maxemchuk, N.F. ; O'Gorman, L.

Modern computer networks make it possible to distribute documents quickly and economically by electronic means rather than by conventional paper means. However, the widespread adoption of electronic distribution of copyrighted material is currently impeded by the ease of unauthorized copying and dissemination. In this paper we propose techniques that discourage unauthorized distribution by embedding each document with a unique codeword. Our encoding techniques are indiscernible by readers, yet enable us to identify the sanctioned recipient of a document by examination of a recovered document. We propose three coding methods, describe one in detail, and present experimental results showing that our identification techniques are highly reliable, even after documents have been photocopied

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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on  (Volume:13 ,  Issue: 8 )