Cart (Loading....) | Create Account
Close category search window

Low-noise microwave-frequency synthesisers Design principles

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $31
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Kroupa, V.F. ; Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Radio Engineering & Electronics, Praha, Czechoslovakia

In the present paper we have first recalled the basic phase-noise equations for a fairly general PLL system, and suggested their normalisation with respect to the square of the output frequency. In this way it is possible to proceed with a graphic solution for the noise spectrum, even in cases of complicated frequency synthesisers, using one and the same figure throughout, since the normalisation brings all sources to their frequency multiplication or division invariant noise power spectral densities. Further, we discuss the influence of the thermal noise, generated in low-pass PLL filters, and emphasise the importance of third-order type-2 loops for low-noise design. Theoretical findings are illustrated by two examples.

Published in:

Microwaves, Optics and Antennas, IEE Proceedings H  (Volume:130 ,  Issue: 7 )

Date of Publication:

December 1983

Need Help?

IEEE Advancing Technology for Humanity About IEEE Xplore | Contact | Help | Terms of Use | Nondiscrimination Policy | Site Map | Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest professional association for the advancement of technology.
© Copyright 2014 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.