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The intended fibre-optic applications for both short- and long-wavelength single-mode diode lasers are discussed. Major types of single-mode devices are grouped and described in two Sections: lowpower (1Â¿7 mW/facet) lasers and high-power (10Â¿50 mW/facet) lasers. The low-power laser Section contains principles of fundamental-mode stabilisation, and a treatment in parallel of AlGaAs and InGaAsP buriedmesa, nonplanar-substrate and laterally lossy devices. The high-power laser Section contains the various means of achieving high-power reliable single-mode operation and a description and comparison of major types of high-power AlGaAs devices. Emphasis is placed on the performance of the constricted doubleheterojunction large-optical-cavity (CDH-LOC) laser. A discussion of single-longitudinal-mode stabilisation and device dynamic behaviour is also presented.