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In this work, we focus on model predictive control of nonlinear systems subject to data losses. The motivation for considering this problem is provided by wireless networked control systems and control of nonlinear systems under asynchronous measurement sampling. In order to regulate the state of the system towards an equilibrium point while minimizing a given performance index, we propose a Lyapunov-based model predictive controller which is designed taking data losses explicitly into account, both in the optimization problem formulation and in the controller implementation. The proposed controller allows for an explicit characterization of the stability region and guarantees that this region is an invariant set for the closed-loop system under data losses, if the maximum time in which the loop is open is shorter than a given constant that depends on the parameters of the system and the Lyapunov-based controller that is used to formulate the optimization problem. The theoretical results are demonstrated through a chemical process example.