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The possible contribution of bistatic radar measurements for bare soil moisture retrieval is investigated in this paper. A simulation study based on well-established electromagnetic models of rough surface scattering (both coherent and incoherent components) has been accomplished for this purpose. The retrieval accuracy has been evaluated by using both the Cramer-Rao lower bound and the error variance of a linear regression estimator, thus considering slightly different assumptions on retrieval conditions. Both methods have allowed us to identify the optimal system configurations in terms of observation directions, polarizations, and frequency. This identification has been carried out for single-polarization and multipolarization receivers and for the case in which bistatic measurements are complemented by monostatic ones, which are expected to be available through already-existing spaceborne synthetic aperture radars. The optimal systems have first been singled out by considering a Gaussian autocorrelation function (ACF) and a constant value of correlation length. Successively, the simulations for an exponential ACF and a variable correlation length have been analyzed, demonstrating that the results substantially remain the same. The comparison between the soil moisture estimation accuracy yielded by the optimal configurations and that provided by the standard monostatic radar has shown that a significant improvement in the quality of retrieval can be achieved by complementing bistatic and monostatic measurements.
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:46 , Issue: 10 )
Date of Publication: Oct. 2008