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A scan flip-flop (FF) is designed to observe both single event transient (SET) and single event upset (SEU) soft errors in logic VLSI systems. The SET and SEU soft errors mean the upset caused by latching an SET pulse that originates in combinational logic blocks and the upset caused by a direct ion hit to the FF, respectively. An irradiation test method using the scan FF is proposed to obtain SET and SEU soft-error rates at each FF distributed in logic VLSI systems. A test chip is designed using a 0.2-mum fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator standard cell library. The basic concepts have been validated with Verilog timing simulations. The cell-level implementation costs of the proposed scan FF are estimated to be reasonable.