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There is growing interest in intracortical microstimulation as a means of providing sensory input in neuroprosthetic systems. We believe that precisely controlling the timing and parameters of stimulation in closed loop can significantly improve the efficacy of this technique. Here, we present a system for closed-loop microstimulation in awake rodents chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays. The system interfaces with existing commercial recording and stimulating hardware. Using custom-made hardware, we can stimulate and record from electrodes on the same implanted array and significantly reduce the stimulation artifact. Stimulation sequences can either be preprogrammed or triggered by neural or behavioral events. Specifically, this system can provide feedback stimulation in response to action potentials or features in the local field potential recorded on any of the electrodes within 15 ms. It can also trigger stimulation based on behavioral events, such as real-time tracking of rat whiskers captured with high-speed video. We believe that this system, which can be recreated easily, will help to significantly refine the technique of intracortical microstimulation and advance the field of neuroprostheses.