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The SPICE program was developed at UC Berkeley in the early 1970s to computerize low-frequency analog circuit design. In those days, microwave designers did not have any significant commercially available CAD tools until the introduction of COMPACT (computerized optimization of microwave passive and active circuits) in 1973. Initially, the program was only available through commercial timesharing systems, but in a few years in-house versions were also offered. The ability to optimize complex microwave circuits eventually convinced many reluctant engineers to accept CAD as a practical design tool and as a result revolutionized circuit design.