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State-of-the-art application-specific instruction set processors (ASIPs) allow the designer to define individual prefabrication customizations, thus improving the degree of specialization towards the actual application requirements, e.g., the computational hot spots. However, only a subset of hot spots can be targeted to keep the ASIP within a reasonable size. We propose a modular special instruction composition with multiple implementation possibilities per special instruction, compile-time embedded instructions to trigger a run-time adaptation of the instruction set, and a run-time system that dynamically selects an appropriate variation of the instruction set, i.e., a situation-dependent beneficial implementation for each special instruction. We thereby achieve a better efficiency of resource usage of up to 3.0 times (average 1.4 times) compared with current state-of-the-art ASIPs, resulting in a 3.1 times (average 1.4 times) improved application performance (compared with a general purpose processor up to 25.7 times and average 17.6 times).