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The multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) uses multiple CPUs along with other hardware subsystems to implement a system. A wide range of MPSoC architectures have been developed over the past decade. This paper surveys the history of MPSoCs to argue that they represent an important and distinct category of computer architecture. We consider some of the technological trends that have driven the design of MPSoCs. We also survey computer-aided design problems relevant to the design of MPSoCs.