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In this article, our previous research on the application of thermal energy transfer for tumor treatment and early diagnosis has been briefly reviewed. The work encompasses some mechanistic studies of the thermal effects on the breast cancer cells and microvascular networks. Accordingly, a new thermal system was designed for more effective thermal therapy and targeted drug delivery. It was clearly demonstrated that the thermal-physical treatment could be effectively applied to tumor therapy, and the therapeutic effect could be enhanced through rapid cooling and heating alternations in the tissue.