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The aim of this paper is to investigate a new calibrating approach to determine the coordinate transformation between the robot tool and the external axle worktable. The approach can be divided into three different steps. Firstly, the coordinate transformation between the robot wrist and the contact position sensor tool is calibrated. Secondly, the coordinates transformation between the robot tool and the external axle worktable is calibrated by the robot and the contact position sensor joint measurement system. Finally, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted to optimize the key parameters to improve the system precision. From the presented approach, the robot system with external axle is calibrated successfully. The effectiveness of the presented approach is demonstrated via some experiments.