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This paper presents results for structural characterization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) for interconnect via applications. Vertically aligned CNFs were grown in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. We characterized the surface topographies of CNF via structures using atomic force microscopy (AFM). We also demonstrated the capability of capturing one single CNF using the AFM current-sensing technique. Moreover, the correlation between the CNF density and via resistances was analyzed theoretically.