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In this paper, a general methodology based on the application of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to the diagnosis of the cage motor condition using transient stator currents is exposed. The approach is based on the identification of characteristic patterns introduced by fault components in the wavelet signals obtained from the DWT of transient stator currents. These patterns enable a reliable detection of the corresponding fault as well as a clear interpretation of the physical phenomenon taking place in the machine. The proposed approach is applied to the detection of rotor asymmetries in two alternative ways, i.e., by using the startup current and by using the current during plugging stopping. Mixed eccentricities are also detected by means of the transient-based methodology. This paper shows how the evolution of other non-fault-related components such as the principal slot harmonic (PSH) can be extracted with the proposed technique. A compilation of experimental cases regarding the application of the methodology to the previous cases is presented. Guidelines for the easy application of the methodology by any user are also provided under a didactic perspective.