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A new microfluidic reaction system capable of mixing, transportation and reaction is developed for synthesis of nanoparticles. It allows for rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach to accelerate the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles. The developed system integrated a micromixer, micropumps, microvalves, microheaters, and micro temperature sensors to form a microfluidic reactor. Successful synthesis of gold nanoparticles with varying sizes has been demonstrated within a shorter period of time. The development of the microfluidic reaction system could be promising for synthesis of functional nanoparticles for biomedical applications.