Skip to Main Content
In an all-IP internetworked heterogeneous environment, ongoing VoIP sessions from roaming users will be subject to frequent vertical handoffs across network boundaries. Ensuring uninterrupted service continuity for these handoff calls requires successful session management among the participating access networks. As such, a mobility-aware novel interworking network design (interconnecting UMTS and WLAN over an IP-based common platform)  is presented in this article that facilitates VoIP session management, including session establishment and seamless session handoff across different networks. For comparison purposes, VoIP session management is evaluated in terms of session establishment, handoff delays, transient packet loss, end-to-end traffic delays, and jitter value for different voice codecs, which demonstrate satisfactory and feasible results. In the event (e.g., network congestion, buffer overflow) that session continuity cannot be guaranteed (also known as outage) across network boundaries, this article proposes an algorithm that compensates the user by reducing the unit service charge of future sessions (governed by the outage period) through a noncooperative game-theory-based pricing mechanism.