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By combining wavelet transform (WT) with fractal theory, a novel approach is put forward to detect early short-circuit fault and analyze voltage stability. The application of signal denoising based on the statistic rule is brought forward to determine the threshold of each order of wavelet space, and an effective method is proposed to determine the decomposition level adaptively, increasing the signal-noise-ratio (SNR). In a view of the inter relationship of wavelet transform and fractal theory, the whole and local fractal exponents obtained from WT coefficients as features are presented for extracting fault signals. The effectiveness of the new algorithm used to extract the characteristic signal is described, which can be realized by the value of the fractal dimensions of those types of short-circuit fault. In accordance with the threshold value of each type of short-circuit fault in each frequency band, the correlation between the type of short-circuit and the fractal dimensions can be figured to perform extraction. This model incorporates the advantages of morphological filter and multi-scale WT to extract the feature of faults meanwhile restraining various noises. Besides, it can be implemented in real time using the available hardware. The effectiveness of this model was verified with the voltage stability analysis of simulation results.