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Users of mass rapid transit are often required to make transfers between different train lines to reach their destinations. Timetable synchronization minimizes delays during such transfers. This paper formulates a novel measure for timetable synchronization by means of a total passenger dissatisfaction index (TPDI); and the impact of such synchronization on the original unsynchronized timetable is accounted using a total deviation index (TDV) that assigns penalties when deviations from the original timetable are incurred. Pareto fronts displaying the relationship between TPDI and TDV are generated using the state-of-the-art nondominated sorting genetic algorithm 2 (NSGA 2). To further improve NSGA 2, three schemes-the use of a variant of the NSGA2 with differential evolution, a process we termed "seeding," and finally a hybrid combination with local search techniques like heuristic hill climbing, tabu search, and simulated annealing - are proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that the "seeded" NSGA2-DE combined with the hill climbing heuristic produce the best results for the application. Solutions from the Pareto fronts are chosen for implementation to describe the different operating regions. A discussion section details the advantages and drawbacks of the proposed schemes.
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:38 , Issue: 5 )
Date of Publication: Sept. 2008