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This paper provides an overview of low-power techniques for field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). It covers system-level design techniques and device-level design techniques that have targeted current commercial devices. It also describes current research on circuit-level and architecture-level design techniques. Recent studies on power modelling and on low-power computer-aided design (CAD) are also reported. Finally, it proposes future work that would enable the use of FPGA technology in applications where power and energy consumption is critical, such as mobile devices.