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This paper proposes a novel video scaler which uses an adaptive polyphase digital filter for image interpolation and possesses a new efficient memory architecture for image data buffering. The proposed adaptive image scaling algorithm is superior to that of bicubic algorithm in preserving details and suppressing ringing artifacts. The new memory architecture, which helps minimize the computational logic and memory usage, significantly simplifies the VLSI design of the scaler. The video scaler can therefore be used independently in any low cost, rational factor image scaling applications without any additional post processing procedures or frame buffering memories.