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A new method for estimating the atmospheric transmittance and wind speed over the ocean from WindSat data is derived using a simplified model for the ocean surface reflectivity. The simplified reflectivity model is used to calculate both the surface emissivity and the reflection of downwelling atmospheric radiation. The wind-speed dependence of the surface reflectivity is parameterized using simple rational functions with coefficients determined from the WindSat data. Because the vertically polarized brightness temperature depends primarily on the atmospheric state, it is used to obtain an initial estimate of the atmospheric transmittance at each spatial location. These estimates are then combined with the horizontally polarized brightness temperature to estimate the wind speed at each location. The first wind-speed estimate is used to refine the estimate of the transmittance, and the process is repeated until the estimates converge, resulting in a simultaneous solution for the atmospheric transmittance and the wind speed. The results are illustrated for two WindSat data sets collected on September 12 and 14, 2003. We have also investigated two methods of estimating wind direction using WindSat measurements of the third and fourth Stokes parameters. The first method involves an algebraic solution for the wind direction from simultaneous measurements of the third and fourth Stokes parameters. The second method involves measurements of the third Stokes parameter from two look directions (fore and aft scan angles), made possible by the conical scanning geometry of WindSat. A comparison and evaluation of these methods is made using the same data sets.