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The ldquosplit ADCrdquo architecture enables continuous digital background calibration by splitting the die area of a single ADC design into two independent halves, each converting the same input signal. The two independent outputs are averaged to produce the ADC output code. The difference of the two outputs provides information for a background-calibration algorithm. Since both ADCs convert the same input, when correctly calibrated, their outputs should be equal, and the difference should be zero. Any nonzero difference provides information to an error-estimation algorithm, which adjusts digital-calibration parameters in an adaptive process similar to a least mean square algorithm. This paper describes the calibration algorithm implemented in the specific realization of a 16-bit 1-MS/s algorithmic cyclic ADC. In addition to correcting ADC linearity, the calibration and estimation algorithms are tolerant of offset error and remove linear scale-factor-error mismatch between the ADC channels. Simulated results are presented confirming self-calibration in approximately 10 000 conversions, which represents an improvement of four orders of magnitude over previous statistically based calibration algorithms.