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Dynamic contrast-enhanced image data (perfusion data) are used to characterize regional tissue perfusion. Perfusion data consist of a sequence of images, acquired after a contrast agent bolus is applied. Perfusion data are used for diagnostic purposes in oncology, ischemic stroke assessment or myocardial ischemia. The diagnostic evaluation of perfusion data is challenging, since the data is complex and exhibits various artifacts, e.g., motion artifacts. We provide an overview on existing methods to analyze, and visualize CT and MR perfusion data. The integrated visualization of several 2D parameter maps, the 3D visualization of parameter volumes and exploration techniques are discussed. An essential aspect in the diagnosis of perfusion data is the correlation between perfusion data and derived time-intensity curves as well as with other image data, in particular with high resolution morphologic image data. We discuss visualization support with respect to the three major application areas: ischemic stroke diagnosis, breast tumor diagnosis and the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.
Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:15 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: March-April 2009