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The design of robust and high-performance gaze-tracking systems is one of the most important objectives of the eye-tracking community. In general, a subject calibration procedure is needed to learn system parameters and be able to estimate the gaze direction accurately. In this paper, we attempt to determine if subject calibration can be eliminated. A geometric analysis of a gaze-tracking system is conducted to determine user calibration requirements. The eye model used considers the offset between optical and visual axes, the refraction of the cornea, and Donder's law. This paper demonstrates the minimal number of cameras, light sources, and user calibration points needed to solve for gaze estimation. The underlying geometric model is based on glint positions and pupil ellipse in the image, and the minimal hardware needed for this model is one camera and multiple light-emitting diodes. This paper proves that subject calibration is compulsory for correct gaze estimation and proposes a model based on a single point for subject calibration. The experiments carried out show that, although two glints and one calibration point are sufficient to perform gaze estimation (error ~ 1deg), using more light sources and calibration points can result in lower average errors.
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:38 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Aug. 2008